A latent viral infection is a type of persistent viral infection which is distinguished from a chronic viral infection. One example is Herpes Virus family, Herpesviridae, all of which establish latent infection. All herpesviruses can establish latent infection within specific tissues, which are characteristic for each virus. Membership in the family Herpesviridae is based on the structure of the virion. This sub-family consists of herpes simplex virus 1 and 2 and varicella-zoster virus. Herpesviridae is a large family of DNA viruses that cause diseases in animals, including humans.
Instead, herpesvirus infections cause a range of fairly mild symptoms, often with long periods of latency between reactivations of virus replication. Herpes simplex virus type 1, for example, has been isolated from individuals in every region of the world, even the most remote, and has found to be present at a prevalence of between 50 to more than 90 of adults. Latent infection is a defining characteristic of members of the herpesviridae family: all herpes viruses have the ability to establish latent and lifelong infections in a specific host cell type, wherein viral replication either stops completely for long periods of time, or reduces to a very low rate. 1. Immunol Rev. 1996 Aug;152:157-73. Human herpes viruses latent infection in the nervous system. Although all three viruses belong to the same family and establish latent infection in the same tissue, the clinical pattern of their reactivation is quite different. Members of the Herpesviridae form a large and diverse family comprised of three subfamilies designated alpha-, beta-, and gammaherpesviruses. All three viruses establish latent infections in neurons and can be reactivated from neurons. 1). For example, HSV requires gD as a ligand for entry receptors.
Herpesviridae main menu. All three viruses have the potential to reactivate causing recurrent disease. Herpes simplex viruses (HSV-1, HSV-2) and varicella zoster virus (VZV) are related human alphaherpesviruses that cause common, self-resolving diseases of the skin or mucosa, and concurrently establish a persistent latent infection of neuronal nuclei in the sensory ganglia innervating the peripheral site of infection. Both VZV and HSV establish lytic infections at peripheral sites using very different routes. Notable among these is the toll-like receptor (TLR) family, with an important role in activating innate immunity. QIAGEN – GeneGlobe Pathway Central Pathways – HSV1 Latent Infection. Herpesviridae is a large family of viruses including several members that are pathogenic to humans, causing a variety of disorders ranging from cold sores and chicken pox to less frequent conditions such as blindness and cancers. HSV1 (Herpes Simplex Virus Type-1), the prototypical member of this family, is a large DNA-containing neurotropic virus endemic in all human populations. It is probable that all vertebrates carry multiple herpesvirus species, and a herpesvirus has also been identified in invertebrates (molluscs). SuHV-1 has an exceptional and remarkably wide host range in the wild, causing fatal disease in unrelated species following natural modes of transmission. Nevertheless, the emerging picture is that for the family Herpesviridae, members of the subfamily Alphaherpesvirinae establish latent infection in neurons, members of the subfamily Betaherpesvirinae establish latent infection in cells of the monocyte series, and members of the subfamily Gammaherpesvirinae establish latent infection in lymphocytes.