Oral herpes causes tingling or painful fluid-filled blisters on the edge of the lip where it meets the skin of the face ( cold sores’). Being infected with HSV makes HIV transmission more likely through sexual transmission. The HIV risk is increased with HSV-2, but not HSV-1. Gay men, injection drug users, etc; for such persons, having HSV-2 could significantly increase the risk of HIV. Chronic, severe herpes simplex virus type 2 (HSV-2) lesions in HIV-infected persons. Observational data indicate that genital ulcer disease, the majority of which is due to HSV-2 infection, increases the probability of HIV-1 transmission by 4-fold on a per-contact basis among monogamous HIV-1 discordant heterosexual couples from Rakai, Uganda, after controlling for serum HIV-1 RNA level in the index partner 118. Recent data suggest that HSV-2 may also be an important factor in the vertical transmission of HIV-1.
The association between HSV infection and HIV susceptibility is particularly well-established, with at least a two-fold increased risk of acquiring HIV among individuals infected with HSV 13.